This book explores the historical roots of economic nationalism within Japan. By examining how mercantilist thought developed in the eighteenth-century domain of Tosa, the author shows how economic ideas were generated within the domains. During the Edo period (1600-1867), Japan was divided into over 230 realms, many of which developed into competitive states that struggled to reduce the dominance of the shogun's economy. The seventeenth-century Japanese economy was based on samurai notions of service and a rhetoric of political economy which centred on the lord and the samurai class. This 'economy of service', however, led to crises of deforestation and land degradation, government fiscal insolvency and increasingly corrupt tax levies, and finally a loss of faith in government. Commoners led the response with a mercantilist strategy of protection and development of the commercial economy. They resisted the economy of service by creating a new economic rhetoric which decentred the lord, imagined the domain as an economic country, and gave merchants a public worth and identity unknown in Confucian economic thought.
Governments around the globe are grappling with increasingly complex, systemic issues that result from the tentacles of globalization, interconnected economies, increasing inequality, urbanization, demographic shifts, threats of global pandemics and climate change. While it is generally recognized that diversity in experience and thinking contributes to innovations in addressing these and related issues, it is also generally recognized that there is still a long road to travel before leadership in public service represents the diverse societies in which governments and non-profit organizations operate and serve. Out of the close to 200 nation-states, about 25 percent have ever been governed by a woman at the helm. As a result of this gender gap, it is obvious that women are not fully participating in government decisions that affect their lives and livelihoods and nations are not capitalizing on the potential of more than half their citizens.
The importance of advancing women's leadership in the public service has continued to gain traction, particularly women's participation in the political arena and the status of women in political leadership positions. The same level of attention has not, however, been given to the role and impact of women's participation at lower levels in the public service. A critical mass of women in public administration, especially in senior decision-making positions, is important not only for equity reasons but also because it brings diversity in perspectives to policy and other discussions.Â Given the increasingly interconnected world, a transnational conversation on women in public administration is needed to address these and other issues faced by women who pursue public purposes- purposes that cross borders and whose impact is not confined in scope.Â Â This handbook will survey the status of women in public administration in the U.S. and in other regions and countries across the globe with a specific focus on best practices, challenges and obstacles.Â Special attention will also be given to programs and policies that facilitate versus constrain involvement and that contribute to the progress of women in public service, worldwide.Â
The comprehensive examination of women's participation in public administration provided by this handbook will contribute to an understanding of the evolution of the role of women in public administration, the current status of, and challenges to, their participation worldwide and the steps taken and that still need to be taken to move forward.
Log-domain and translinear filters provide a competitive alternative to the challenges of ever increasing low-voltage, low-power and high frequency demands in the area of continuous-time filters. Since translinear filters are fundamentally large-signal linear, they are capable of realizing a large dynamic range in combination with excellent tunability characteristics. Large-signal linearity is achieved by exploiting the accurate exponential behavior of the bipolar transistor or the subthreshold MOS transistor. A generalization of the dynamic translinear principle exploiting the square law behavior of the MOS transistor is theoretically possible, but not practically relevant.
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