This book explores the historical roots of economic nationalism within Japan. By examining how mercantilist thought developed in the eighteenth-century domain of Tosa, the author shows how economic ideas were generated within the domains. During the Edo period (1600-1867), Japan was divided into over 230 realms, many of which developed into competitive states that struggled to reduce the dominance of the shogun's economy. The seventeenth-century Japanese economy was based on samurai notions of service and a rhetoric of political economy which centred on the lord and the samurai class. This 'economy of service', however, led to crises of deforestation and land degradation, government fiscal insolvency and increasingly corrupt tax levies, and finally a loss of faith in government. Commoners led the response with a mercantilist strategy of protection and development of the commercial economy. They resisted the economy of service by creating a new economic rhetoric which decentred the lord, imagined the domain as an economic country, and gave merchants a public worth and identity unknown in Confucian economic thought.
There are many histories of the police as a law-enforcement institution, but no genealogy of the police as a form of power. This book provides a genealogy of the modern police by tracing the evolution of 'police science' and of police institutions in Europe, from the ancien regime to the early 19th century. Drawing on the theoretical path outlined by Michel Foucault, and departing from the classic paradigm in police studies - where the role of the police is narrowly conceived as one of a law-enforcement - it shows how the development of police power was an integral part of the birth of the modern state's governmental rationalities. Police institutions were conceived as political technologies for the government and social disciplining of populations. From the outset then, the police have played an active role in actually producing order, rather than merely preserving it. And, as this book argues, the modern police should therefore be understood, not as an institution at the service of the judiciary and the law, but as a political technology for governing the economic and social processes typical of modern capitalist societies.
This book provides the first systematic treatment of modules over discrete valuation domains which plays an important role in various areas of algebra, especially in commutative algebra. Many important results representing the state of the art are presented in the text which is supplemented by exercises and interesting open problems.
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