This book explores the historical roots of economic nationalism within Japan. By examining how mercantilist thought developed in the eighteenth-century domain of Tosa, the author shows how economic ideas were generated within the domains. During the Edo period (1600-1867), Japan was divided into over 230 realms, many of which developed into competitive states that struggled to reduce the dominance of the shogun's economy. The seventeenth-century Japanese economy was based on samurai notions of service and a rhetoric of political economy which centred on the lord and the samurai class. This 'economy of service', however, led to crises of deforestation and land degradation, government fiscal insolvency and increasingly corrupt tax levies, and finally a loss of faith in government. Commoners led the response with a mercantilist strategy of protection and development of the commercial economy. They resisted the economy of service by creating a new economic rhetoric which decentred the lord, imagined the domain as an economic country, and gave merchants a public worth and identity unknown in Confucian economic thought.
This important library and classroom tool will make it easy for students to research and debate the core political ideas and issues of the founding period. The profound arguments regarding republicanism, federalism, constitutionalism, and individual rights come to life here, contextualized with introductory explanations to stimulate analysis and appraisal of the positions. Unique to this collection are documents relating to the establishment of constitutional governments in the original 13 states, debate over the Bill of Rights, and documents reflecting a variety of alternative voices, including letters and petitions from women and African-American and Native-American leaders. This presents a broader picture of the issues that confronted those who framed our government than has ever before been available. An advisory board of distinguished historians and teachers assisted Patrick with the selection of documents. This collection shows how the founding fathers arrived at consensus from the many conflicting viewpoints that characterized the debate on founding our extraordinary constitutional republic. The political debates on independence and original state constitutions are connected systematically to the subsequent debates on the ratification of the Federal Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Political grievances of dispossessed groups such as women, African Americans, and Native Americans, are connected to core ideas of the founding documents, such as the Declaration of Independence. Letters, petitions, sermons, court proceedings, Thomas Jefferson's notes, a selection of Federalist and anti-Federalist papers, even the Northwest Ordinance, are among the documents included. The work is organized topically into seven parts, each which is prefaced by an introductory essay which presents the main theme, ideas, and issues, and establishes a context for the documents that follow. Each document is preceded by an explanatory headnote, which includes questions to guide the reader's analysis and appraisal of the primary source. Each part ends with a select bibliography. A chronology of major events concludes the work. This collection is a basic research and debate tool that will be invaluable to school and public libraries and secondary school classrooms.
Linguistic theory has recently experienced a shift in its conceptual approach from the formulation of descriptively adequate accounts of languages to the definition of principles and parameters claimed to reflect the initial structure of the language faculty, often termed Universal Grammar (UG). Linguistic experience is said to have the effect of guiding the child/linguist in fixing the unspecified parameters of U G to determine the grammar of his/her language. The study of anaphora has been of central concern as it addresses directly the innateness vs. experience issue. On the one hand, it is a part of all natural languages that is largely under- determined by the data, and must therefore be included in the characterization of the initial state of the language faculty. On the other hand, although the principles that govern anaphora do not exhibit extreme variations across languages, a child/linguist must solve language specific issues for his/her language based on linguistic experience. This book examines a set of linguistic structures from both a theoretical and an experimental perspective. The purpose is to xv PREFACE xvi determine the roles of innateness and of experience in the devel- opment of a child's theory of anaphora for his/her language.
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